Age-related changes in the normal sagittal relationship between globe and orbit. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Many risks factors have been associated with asymmetry. The presence of GO is associated with increased psychological burden and, in severe cases may cause blindness. GO may also cause a psychological and financial burden (8), primarily but not exclusively due to cosmetic concerns, as well as increase the risk for suicide (9), and impairment of quality of life of patients (10). Psychosocial morbidity of Graves’ orbitopathy. Graves’ Orbitopathy (GO) is an autoimmune orbital disorder usually presenting as a sequala of autoimmune thyroid disease. In severe cases GO can be sight-threatening, thus requiring a prompt referral to specialist services (7) upon diagnosis. Chin YH, Ng CH, Lee MH, Koh JWH, Kiew J, Yang SP, et al. doi: 10.1001/archopht.1993.01090020051022, 38. N Engl J Med (2011) 364:1920–31. Predictive score for the development or progression of Graves’ orbitopathy in patients with newly diagnosed Graves’ hyperthyroidism. However, in a recently published retrospective hospital-based report from India, unilateral disease was much higher at 36% and significantly more common among silent presenters compared to the clinically active group (33). doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2011.02.018, 11. Clearly, there is a need for a consensus in the definitions of asymmetric and unilateral disease. New insights into the pathogenesis and nonsurgical management of Graves orbitopathy. Chebib FS, Chamma AM. Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery. Graves’ Orbitopathy (GO) is an autoimmune orbital disorder usually presenting as a sequala of autoimmune thyroid disease. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology Impact Factor IF 2020|2019|2018 - BioxBio Front. It is important that unilateral GO be differentially diagnosed from orbital diseases affecting one eye, such as orbital tumors, such as lymphoma (39, 40). Orbital lymphoma mimicking ophthalmopathy in a patient with Graves’. Perros P, Zarkovic MP, Panagiotou GC, Azzolini C, Ayvaz G, Baldeschi L, et al. Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Shackelford TK, Larsen RJ. Impact Factor. BMC Ophthalmol (2013) 13:21. doi: 10.1186/1471-2415-13-21, 12. Other differentials affecting the orbit including other orbital tumors or pseudotumors, carotid cavernous fistulae, and dermoid and/or epidermoid cysts need to be excluded, too. Moreover, disease severity is assessed similarly to bilateral disease, using clinically evaluated standardized tools, such as CAS (27) and Vision, Inflammation, Strabismus, Appearance (VISA) (28). View all
31. Your IP: 22.214.171.124 In the past, asymmetry has been variably defined as difference in proptosis between eyes by ≥2 mm (13), >2 mm (11, 22), or any one of the following criteria: retrobulbar pain or > or =1 grade in soft tissue involvement, and/or of > or =2 mm in exophthalmos, and/or > or =8 degrees in elevation (23), or repeatable asymmetry with regard to more than one symptom and more than one external or anterior segment finding for a duration of two or more visits at least 1 month apart at any time during the initial or follow-up period (23). doi: 10.1530/eje.0.1480491, 32. Impact Factor 3.644 ... Frontiers in Endocrinology Cancer Endocrinology Toggle navigation Section (current) Section; ... Cuthbertson DJ and Pritchard DM (2020) Frequency and Causes of False-Positive Elevated Plasma Concentrations of Fasting Gut Hormones in a Specialist Neuroendocrine Tumor Center.
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