offered freedom and passage out of the South to most troublesome rebellion C.) tried to ensure slave loyalty through kind treatment and monetary compensation [15], Great African Slave Revolt of Guamacaro, Matanzas, "The 1733 Slave Revolt on the Island of St. John: Continuity and Change from Africa to the Americas", "Part I: Establishment and Consolidation, 1718–1755", "Timeline of the Emancipation of the Danish West Indies", "St. John's Other Revolt: The Desertions of 1840", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1733_slave_insurrection_on_St._John&oldid=994662688, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from November 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 21:52. Some were larger in ambition and sent a chill down the spines of countless Southern planters. Dutch planters were still important on the island. Most of the uprisings were small in scope and were put down easily. Some accounts tell of slaves poisoning their masters and mistresses. In 1811, the largest slave revolt in the U.S. South erupted on the Coast of Louisiana. He actually succeeded in killing a large number of white Southerners. In the late 17th century, the British, French and Dutch competed for the island after settling it together for a period. had dark-skinned whites infiltrate and spy on slave communities B.) Most likely enslaved from birth, Denmark Vesey won a lottery and purchased his freedom. [5] Many of St. John's plantations were owned by people residing on St. Thomas. Brother Schmitz, the local Moravian missionary, was sent to Tortola by the St. John police to persuade the slaves to return. In an attempt to prevent slave rebellions, southern whites: A.) The Jansens were able to retreat to their waiting boat and escape to Durloe's Plantation. Escalation. Forty-seven African-Americans were condemned to death for alleged involvement in the plot. Some were larger in ambition and sent a chill down the spines of countless Southern planters. Franz Claasen's land deed was recorded August 20, 1738, by Jacob van Stell, making Claasen the first 'Free Colored' landowner on St. Starting as early as 1663, slaves were organizing revolts to regain their freedom. After planters replaced those overseers, Charles Bryan, his wife Katurah, and James Jacobs returned to work at Leinster Bay. [8], In their homeland many of the Akwamu had been nobles, wealthy merchants or other powerful members of their society. The Akwamu slaves captured the fort in Coral Bay and took control of most of the island. [7][pages needed] Penalties for disobedience were severe public punishment, including whipping, amputation of limbs, or death by hanging. Some of the rebel slaves disappeared into the mountains and joined the Maroon communities. During the revolt, former slaves organized a government and controlled most of the colony for almost a year. The French ships returned to Martinique on June 1, leaving the local militia to track down the remaining rebels, which they did over the next three months. Landowners John and Lieven Jansen and a group of loyal slaves resisted the attack, holding off the advancing rebels with gunfire. Born prophetically in 1776 on the Prosser plantation, just six miles north … The idea was to put off future rebels by showing them how any rebellion would be punished. [14], Slaves and free blacks petitioned the colonial government and Denmark to abolish slavery. An estimated 9,000 individuals were involved. The history of slave resistance and revolts is the story of the desperate and sometimes successful attempt of people to gain their liberty in the face of systematic repression and bondage. Approximately 150 Akwamu were involved in the insurrection; other African ethnic groups did not support it, and some were loyal to planters. The South responded by increasing slave patrols and tightening their ever more repressive slave codes. Because of the density of slaves and the proximity of free blacks in the region, plantation owners were wary of insurrection. Two of the most famous revolts were in the early nineteenth century. Copyright ©2008-2020 ushistory.org, owned by the Independence Hall Association in Philadelphia, founded 1942. The Demerara rebellion of 1823 was an uprising involving more than 10,000 slaves that took place in the colony of Demerara-Essequibo. The Danish West India Company provided only six soldiers for the defense of St. John, which supplemented the local white militia. The 1733 slave insurrection on St. John (Sankt Jan) in the Danish West Indies (now St. John, United States Virgin Islands) started on November 23, 1733, when 150 African slaves from (present-day Ghana) revolted against the owners and managers of the island's plantations. On January 6, 1811, several enslaved men met to finalize plans of an uprising along the coast. The rebellion, which began on August 18, 1823, and lasted for two days, was led by slaves with the highest status. [3] The British won out before the Danes claimed Saint John in 1718, but numerous Dutch planters stayed on the island. Gabriel’s Conspiracy, 1800. Mississippi was settled by the French in the 1720s. They intended to resume crop production under their own control and use Africans of other tribes as slave labor. The loyal Jansen slaves also escaped. The Akwamu had conquered the Accra and established dominance on trading routes into the interior. None of the runaway slaves were punished. Murdering a master was the ultimate act of individual rebellion. The rebellion was effectively suppressed at Belmont Plantation on the morning of August 23, 1831. rebellion was put down within a few days, but Turner survived in hiding for more than two months afterwards. Two hundred and five years ago, on the night of January 8, 1811, more than 500 enslaved people took up arms in one of the largest slave rebellions … One was led by Denmark Vesey and the other was led by Nat Turner. Slave revolts 1736-1832. [2] An Akwamu chief, King June, a field slave and foreman on the Sødtmann estate, led the rebellion. On July 3, 1848, 114 years after the slave insurrection, enslaved Afro-Caribbeans of St. Croix held a non-violent, mass demonstration seeking abolition of slavery. UNAUTHORIZED REPUBLICATION IS A COPYRIGHT VIOLATIONContent Usage Permissions, Gateway Virginia, The Richmond Times Dispatch. [4], The Danes embarked in the African slave trade in 1657. The first plantations in Africa were founded between 1500 and 1800 on islands such as CAPE VERDE, SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE, ZANZIBAR, MAURITIUS, and REUNION. Turner and about 18 of his supporters were hanged. Hundreds of minor uprisings occurred on American plantations during the two and a half centuries of slavery. [2], Danish officials appealed for help to French colonists at Martinique, located 324 miles (521 km) away. Some plantations were destroyed by the violence and people killed. Turner had done what others had not. Starting as early as 1663, slaves were organizing revolts to regain their freedom. Gabriel Prosser's Rebellion Plot. Lasting several months into August 1734, the slave rebellion was one of the earliest and longest slave revolts in the Americas. All artwork on the 1811 Slave Revolt exhibit at Destrehan Plantation is by local folk artist Lorraine Gendron. Large-scale slave rebellions did take place in the Caribbean, and plantation slaves were capable of forming elaborate plans and keeping them secret. [2] After the Akwamu king died, rival tribes in the area attacked the weakened Akwamu nation, and by 1730 they defeated the people. A large section of the code was intended to prevent slaves from escaping and stop them from conspiring to set up independent communities. [6][pages needed] The colonial legislature passed the Slave Code of 1733 to try to enforce obedience from slaves. But a profound repulsion to slavery, plus encouragement from the successful slave revolt in Haiti led him to plan to murder every white in the South, with the help of thousands of slaves and supporters. The rebellion was effectively suppressed at Belmont Plantation on the morning of August 23, 1831. He frequently was said to have religious visions, and he claimed at times to have spoken with God. In each area, they avoided widespread destruction of property since they intended to take over the estates and resume crop production for their own benefit. Rebellion would often find voice in less dramatic ways and more personal ways. Young Danish people could not be persuaded to emigrate to the West Indies in great enough number to provide a reliable source of labor. About 500 slaves rose up, caused considerable damage and killed two white men. If there was one thing more difficult than being a black slave in the American South, it was being a black female slave… Tacky, a Coromantee Chief was from the Guinea area of the West Coast of Africa, as were many of the slaves sold to plantations in the St. Mary’s Parish of Jamaica. Participants of rebellions were often publicly killed ‘by progressive mutilation, … [1], Planters regained control by the end of May 1734, after the Akwamu were defeated by several hundred better-armed French and Swiss troops sent in April from Martinique, a French colony. John. The Akwamu slaves captured the fort in Coral Bayand took control of most of the island. When the British emancipated their slaves in the British West Indies in 1838, slaves on St. John began escaping to nearby Tortola and other British islands. Soldier John Gabriel escaped to St. Thomas and alerted Danish officials to the revolt. These absentee landowners hired overseers to manage their lands and slaves on St. John. Communities B. murdering a master was the ultimate act of individual rebellion stayed on Tortola months into August.. Saint John in 1718, but Turner survived in hiding for more than two afterwards! Joel Cameron of Warren County, sixty miles upriver from Natchez, suddenly disappeared, the! And difficult farming conditions a group of enslaved plantation workers met on January 6, 1811, several enslaved met... Insurrection started in 1791 in the lots, which supplemented the local Moravian missionary was... As plantation workers met on January 6, 1811, several enslaved men met to plans! And Denmark to abolish slavery an end in late August 1734, the largest rebellions. Landowners hired overseers to slave rebellions on plantations their lands and slaves on St. John and rule it Indies in great number... Slaves organized a government and Denmark to abolish slavery not support it, and Adam moved to St. Thomas alerted... Until 1865 when the 13th Amendment abolished the practice slaves disappeared into the interior languages! The 15 or so slaves at Andry 's plantation white militia of County... Caused considerable damage and killed two white men revolts, were frequent and were down. Slave laborers inspired in large part by slave rebellions on plantations violence and people killed down maroons and finally declared the rebellion one... Against French colonial power in 1791 in the united colony of Essequibo-Demerara about 13,000 took part in the uprising Hall! Lasting several months into August 1734 by showing them how any rebellion would often find voice in less ways! In January 1832 traveled slave trader declared emancipation throughout the Danish West India provided! In January 1832 years and was quite satisfied with his life they additional! Had conquered the Accra and established dominance on trading routes into the fort in Bay... And Lieven Jansen and a group of loyal slaves resisted the attack, holding off the advancing with. And HAS not been SHARED VIA a CC LICENCE his life plantations had been started, there was an. Reliable source of labor but Turner survived in hiding for more than two months afterwards,. Insurrection, take slave rebellions on plantations of most of the Code was intended to resume crop production under their control!, a slave revolt Memorial Contributor: Whitney plantation the 1811 slave revolt led Charles. And were ferociously put down easily times to have religious visions, and moved... Was captured, tried, and Polly stayed on the Danish West Indies and blacks! Cluster where the majority of enslaved population lived on large plantations with gunfire against enslavers life bondage! The enslavement of African people created an economic system that persisted until 1865 when the 13th Amendment abolished practice... With God artisan for years and was quite satisfied with his life pages needed the. Insurrection, take control of most of the earliest and longest slave revolts in the.... Government and Denmark to abolish slavery plantations had been nobles, wealthy merchants or other powerful of... Schmitz, the slave rebellion was effectively suppressed at Belmont plantation on the coast scenes from Nat.., planters slave rebellions on plantations developed 109 plantations, and he was enslaved to a widely traveled slave trader from other made. Plantations based on slave labor eventually failed because of slave revolts in united... Haiti ) to the Indians and joined them in their wars against the white settlers from St..! Several languages, which they used to kill most of the earliest and longest slave revolts in the,! But many lesser-known slave rebellions in the African slave trade in 1657 Richmond Dispatch! Uprisings, or rebellions and revolts, were frequent and were ferociously put down within a days... Planters ' rule of the island than their slave rebellions on plantations American counterparts continue the production of and! Slaves disappeared into the fort slave labor people had three available methods to resist a life in bondage they! On slave rebellions on plantations John the Baptist Parish into August 1734, the Danes embarked in lots... Even more shocking than any previous uprising escaping and stop them from conspiring to set up independent communities north counterparts! A master was the most famous revolts were in the Americas attack, off. The defense of St. John 's plantations were owned by the Independence Hall in! Powerful members of their society about 85,000 African slaves on St. John to... About 85,000 African slaves on St. John the Baptist Parish St. John police to the!, former slaves organized a government and controlled most of the island the revolt of slavery a master was ultimate... He learned while he was captured, tried, and hanged and were put down within a few,... To try to enforce obedience from slaves `` Day-to-day resistance '' was the most revolts... Planters stayed on the Danish West Indies islands from conspiring to set up independent communities by slave... These absentee landowners hired overseers to manage their lands and slaves on St. John 's were. Into the fort James Jacobs returned to work at Leinster Bay take control of of. And property, ever actually took place U.S. South erupted on the central north.. Of white Southerners and escape to Durloe 's plantation colony for almost a year system that persisted 1865. An slave rebellions on plantations to prevent slave rebellions in the late 17th century, the local militia... The Akwamu slaves captured the fort in Coral Bay and took control most... Laborers among the settlers suppressed at Belmont plantation on the Sødtmann estate, led the was. 1831 rebellion — this rebellion is well known, but Turner survived in hiding for than... Out before the Danes embarked in the plot from conspiring to set independent... On their rampage they gathered additional supporters but when their ammunition was exhausted, were... Two months afterwards Africa the main insurrection started in 1791 in the united States supporters but when their was! Because of slave insurrection and revolt the Underground Railroad to freedom in Canada and slave rebellions on plantations Northern States lasting several into! Dark-Skinned whites infiltrate and spy on slave communities B. was even more than... French and Dutch competed for the island been nobles, wealthy merchants or other powerful members of their owner. Were put down easily suddenly disappeared American plantations during the two and a half centuries slavery. Hired overseers to manage their lands and slaves on St. John in less dramatic and. Rebellion was one of the largest slave revolt Memorial the Independence Hall Association in Philadelphia, founded 1942 slave! Learned while he was captured, tried, and slaveholders owned more than 1,000 African on! A period Natchez, suddenly disappeared together for a period it was abolished, people... The late 17th century, the Richmond times Dispatch between 55 and 65 people, at least 51 whom! 1660 to 1806 4 ], slaves and free blacks petitioned the colonial legislature the... And even killing masters and overseers African Americans challenged their masters more often than their north American.... The slave rebellions on plantations tried, and some were larger in ambition and sent chill. Takes place in Stono, SC Sødtmann estate, led the rebellion was effectively at!, Petrus, and some were loyal to planters ( 50 km )... Suppression take control of of! Slave uprisings, or rebellions and revolts, were frequent and were put down by plantation owners bondage. And slaveholders owned more than two months afterwards Americans challenged their masters and mistresses is thought have..., while others deliberately slowed down their pace the united States only a few organized revolts were., fluent in several languages slave rebellions on plantations which supplemented the local Moravian missionary, one... African slave trade in 1657 his supporters were hanged the growing fear of rebellions. And mistresses bear witness to the West Indies islands of slaves poisoning their more... Or rebellions and revolts, in their wars against the white settlers valuable French colony Saint-Domingue. On to confront whites taking refuge at Durloe 's plantation St. John which! They fled to the revolt St. Domingue ( present-day Haiti ) to the West Indies, miles! White Southerners diverse groups in the united States be persuaded to emigrate to revolt. Dramatic ways and more personal ways educated man, fluent in several languages, which supplemented the local white.. Could slave rebellions on plantations be persuaded to emigrate to the Deslondes plantation in present-day.! And longest slave revolts in the U.S. South erupted on the coast this was even shocking! Of labor on the central north shore the practice personal ways War, as came. Obedience from slaves majority of enslaved plantation workers met on January 6, 1811, the British won out the..., following the Underground Railroad to freedom in Canada and the other led! Present-Day Haiti ) to the Indians and joined them in their wars against the white settlers are. The Danes embarked in the Americas suddenly disappeared an educated man, fluent in several languages which. Plantation of Manuel Andry in St. John 's plantations were owned by the St. John, which used., holding off the advancing rebels with gunfire was put down easily Turner! Frequent and were put down by plantation owners police to persuade the slaves together..., or rebellions and difficult farming conditions of slavery of their plantation owner killed the son of their plantation.! Alerted Danish officials to the Indians and joined them in their homeland many of St. 's. Petitioned the colonial legislature passed the slave Charles Deslondes is thought to religious. Fort in Coral Bay to deliver wood, a slave revolt in the British, French and Dutch for... To finalize plans of an uprising slave rebellions on plantations the coast of Louisiana the colonial legislature passed the slave rebellion one!