74160. In areas with hot summers, pruning to open up canopies can reduce populations of black scale, citricola scale, cottony cushion scale, and possibly other scales by increasing scale mortality from exposure to heat and parasites. Calif. Div. Inspect trunks for ants periodically during the growing season. Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California Populations of some scales can increase dramatically within a few months when the weather is warm, and honeydew-seeking ants protect scales from their natural enemies. Color photographs for 200 scale species and detailed discussion of these and others are available in the California Department of Food and Agriculture publications by Gill listed in References. UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Citrus UC ANR Publication 3441. Systemics can translocate into flowers and have adverse effects on natural enemies and pollinators that feed on nectar and pollen. Monitor brown soft scale from June through October when biological control may be disrupted. With trunk injection and implantation it is difficult to repeatedly place insecticide at the proper depth. All rights reserved. PDF reader. It is designed to teach about the lifecycle and habits of the cottony cushion scale and the predatory vedalia beetle. Res. Flint, M. L. 1998. Trunk application of an effective systemic insecticide can provide relatively rapid control. E.E. Contact webmaster. Ant control, habitat manipulation, and pesticide management are the key natural enemy conservation strategies. J.G. imidacloprid, a popular systemic insecticide (discussed below), controls soft scales and certain other scales but does not control armored scales or cottony cushion scale. After removing the old tape, wrap the twig at the same location with fresh tape. Publ. Unfortunately, we cannot provide individual solutions to specific pest problems. Nat Res. /QT/scalescard.html revised: Always read the label. Immature scales are small slow-moving bodies called crawlers that have legs which eventually drop off. IPM is a methodology that reduces the use of chemical pesticides by allowing people to manage pests by using preventative and natural strategies. 3 See Pest Notes: Oak Pit Scales, UC ANR Publication 7470 4 See Pest Notes: Sycamore Scale, UC ANR Publication 7409 ; WARNING ON THE USE OF PESTICIDES. Adults of predatory bugs, lacewings, lady beetles, and parasitic wasps live longer, lay more eggs, and kill more scales when they have plant nectar or pollen and insect honeydew to feed on. Hyperaspis species are tiny, shiny, black lady beetles with several red, orange, or yellow spots on the back. Boric acid, fipronil, and hydramethylnon are examples of insecticides used in ant baits. Trace back trail-making ants to locate colonies of the honeydew-producing insects. Exit hole in soft scale indicating parasitization. Armored scales do not produce honeydew. Published on: September 4, 2014 Greedy scale colony. This material is not effective against some scales, including armored scales, and may cause outbreaks of cottony cushion scale. Nat. UC IPM plans to add additional online courses in 2019. Staff-only pages Horticultural oils (e.g., Bonide Horticultural Oil and Monterey Horticultural Oil) are specially refined petroleum products, often called narrow-range, superior, or supreme oils. Trunk injection and implantation also injure woody plants and can spread plant pathogens on contaminated tools. Properly applied, one application of an effective product may provide season-long control. What are the University of California sources for citrus integrated pest management information? The coursework will improve your pest and natural enemy recognition, teach sampling methods and thresholds for treatment, and provide a management strategy. Res. See our Home page, or in the U.S., contact your local Cooperative Extension office for assistance. The brown soft scale is an exception; it has multiple generations and females and nymphs can be present throughout the year. Follow product labels, which may say to not spray certain plant species or mix oil with certain other products. The Citrus IPM Newsletter is published by the University of California Citrus Entomology Laboratory at the Kearney Agricultural Research Center. Publ. Photo Gallery. PDF: To display a PDF document, you may need to use a 1993. Common species include black scale, lecanium scale, and brown soft scale. Thorough spray coverage is especially critical when treating armored scales and oak pit scales as these scales are generally less susceptible to pesticides than soft scales. D.R. Foliage sprays of systemics can be toxic to beneficial insects that contact spray or treated leaves. Calif. Agric. 7470. Gill, R. J. Some systemic insecticides can cause spider mite outbreaks. 2012. UC Statewide IPM Program. As you gain experience, refine this threshold over time for your local situation. More Year-Round IPM Program Tiny citricola scale nymphs on the underside of a leaf. For example, sago palms can be infested by the similar-looking cycad scale and oleander scale. REFERENCES. Authors: J. N. Kabashima, UC Cooperative Extension, Orange and Los Angeles Counties; and S. H. Dreistadt, UC Statewide IPM Program, Davis. Nat. Res. Scales (UC IPM On-line) Scale Insects and Mealybugs on Ornamental Plants (University of Florida, IFAS Extension) Slugs/Snails (UC IPM On-line) Slugs and Snails, Using Home Remedies to Control Garden Pests (Oregon State University) Snail, African, Injuries Caused by the Giant African Snail to Papaya; Spider mites (UC IPM On-line) If ants are abundant, selectively control them. Description of the Pest Brown soft scale is a mottled, yellow-brown when young, becoming … Damaging species include cycad scale, euonymus scale, oystershell scale, and San Jose scale. Contact UC IPM, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, © 2020 Regents of the University of California Cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi, can infest a number of woody ornamentals and certain crops (Figure 1). Although baits require users to be patient, they can be much more effective than sprays. The female wasp lays one or several eggs in or on each scale, where the tiny maggotlike wasp larvae feed. Nat. Pierce's Disease. Most immature soft scales retain their barely visible legs and antennae after settling and are able to move, although slowly. With external parasites that feed outside the scale body, but under the cover of armored scales, their maggotlike larvae may be observed by prying off the scale cover. Oakland: Univ. Consult the UC IPM website to help identify the species or family of scale insects so you can learn effective controls. There is a longer time delay between soil application and insecticide action. Common hosts in California are citrus, cocculus, nandina, and pittosporum. Pest Notes: Black Scale. Preserve the old sticky tapes by sandwiching them between a sheet of white paper and clear plastic. Systemic insecticides are absorbed by one plant part (e.g., trunks or roots) and moved (translocated) to leaves and other plant parts. UC Resources: UC ANR Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education Program: https://sarep.ucdavis.edu/ Dr. … Nymphs of some species can move slowly, such as soft scales that feed on deciduous hosts and move from foliage to bark in the fall before leaves drop. Inspect wraps at least several times a year for damage to bark and remove and relocate any wrap at least once a year to minimize bark injury. Calif. Agric. All contents copyright © Calif. Agric. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Use nonchemical alternatives or less toxic pesticide products whenever possible. L.G. Insecticides can have unintended effects, such as contaminating water, poisoning natural enemies and pollinators, and causing secondary pest outbreaks. Soft scales include black scale, brown soft scale, Kuno scale, lecanium scales, and tuliptree scale. 1988. Preserving (conserving) parasites and predators (such as by controlling pest-tending ants) may be enough to bring about gradual control of certain scales as natural enemies become more abundant. Scales are preyed upon by small parasitic wasps and many predators, including certain beetles, bugs, lacewings, and mites. Nondiscrimination Statement. Each instar can change greatly as it ages, so many scales appear to have more than two growth stages. As adults, scales are immobile with coverings that are 1/25 to 1/4 inch long. Publication Number:: 3332. For example, acetamiprid (Ortho Flower, Fruit & Vegetable Insect Killer) controls soft scales but is not very effective on armored scales and can only be applied by spraying foliage. K.E. A barrier band about 2 to 6 inches wide should be adequate in most situations. During the spring before crawlers begin to emerge, tightly encircle each of several scale-infested twigs or branches with transparent tape that is sticky on both sides, available at fabric or craft stores. Honeydew monitoring is useful where there is a low tolerance for dripping honeydew, when managing many trees, such as along city streets or in parks, and on tall trees where the honeydew-producing insects may be located too high to easily observe. The Scale Insects of California Part 2: The Minor Families. Plants are not harmed by a few scales and even high populations of certain species apparently do not damage plants. Oakland: Univ. When injecting or implanting into multiple plants, scrub any plant sap from tools or equipment that penetrate bark and disinfect tools with a registered disinfectant (e.g., bleach) before moving to work on each new plant. This essential handbook adapts scientifically based integrated pest management techniques to the needs of the home gardener and small-scale or urban farmer. 7410. 2019 At least one to two minutes of disinfectant contact time between contaminated uses is generally required. Regularly monitoring honeydew beneath plants, such as the number of drops during four hours on the same time of day once a week, can help to develop thresholds and evaluate effectiveness of the treatment. Use sticky barriers or insecticide baits to selectively control scale-tending ants. For more information and photos about many common scales in California landscapes, see the newly revised Scales Pest Note by John Kabashima, UCCE Orange and Los Angeles Counties, and Steve Dreistadt, UC Statewide IPM Program. 2004. For noncommercial purposes only, any Web site may link directly to this page. Cooperative Extension Sutter-Yuba Counties 142A Garden Highway Yuba City, CA 95991-5512 (530) 822-7515 jkhasey@ucanr.edu Bechtel In This Issue 2019 UCCE Winter Walnut Meetings Newsletters are going online! Various other organisms resemble scales but have different biology and management. After completing the larval stage and pupating, the emerging adult of internal parasites typically leaves a round exit hole in the scale it killed. Food Agric. Agric. 1997. Scales lack an obvious head or legs and don’t resemble most other insects. Food Agric. Soft scales and certain other types feed on phloem sap and excrete abundant, sticky honeydew, which drips on plants and surfaces underneath and promotes the growth of blackish sooty mold. These include California laurel aphid (Euthoracaphis umbellulariae), coconut mealybug (Nipaecoccus nipae), cypress bark mealybug (Ehrhornia cupressi), palm aphid (Cerataphis brasiliensis), whitefly nymphs, and psyllids, such as lemongum lerp psyllid (Cryptoneossa triangula) and redgum lerp psyllid (Glycaspis brimblecombei). Flint, M. L., and S. H. Dreistadt. PDF: To display a PDF document, you may need to use a PDF reader. UC Statewide IPM Program: How to Manage Pests: Walnut. In comparison with systemics that are sprayed onto foliage, products labeled for soil drench or injection, or for trunk injection or spray minimize environmental contamination and may be more effective than contact insecticides. What to Use to Kill Bugs on Cherry Trees. Contact UC IPM, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, © 2019 Regents of the University of California Retail Nursery and Garden Center IPM News. Read more about Scales. Even very high populations of oleander scale are harmless to most plants, but cycad scale warrants control because it causes serious damage and can kill sago palms. Provide plants with proper cultural care, especially irrigation. Do not implant or inject into roots or trunks more than once a year. Insecticides are not necessary unless damage from scales is intolerable. Products include bright yellow cards that produce distinct blue dots upon contact with honeydew or water. For species with multiple generations, all scale life stages may be present throughout the year in areas with mild winters. Integrated Pest Management for UC Master Gardeners Anne Schellman Urban IPM Educator Karey Windbiel-Rojas Associate Director for Urban & Community IPM/Area IPM Advisor UC Statewide IPM Program Overview of Presentation uConcepts of IPM uUnderstanding pesticides and reading labels uUC Resources Integrated Pest Management u Ecosystem-based strategy u Focuses on long-term … Diamond “scale,” which infests palms, is actually the fruiting bodies of a blackish fungus (Phaeochoropsis neowashingtoniae). To control most scales overwintering on deciduous woody plants, thoroughly spray the bark of terminal shoots with oil during winter. Haviland, UC IPM and UC Cooperative Extension Kern County. It is designed to teach about the lifecycle and habits of citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum and the Metaphycus parasites that lay their eggs in it. Plant parts can distort or die back, depending on the species and abundance of scales. This course will also discuss damage to citrus, sampling methods, and biological and chemical control of citricola scale. 1998. Predatory lady beetle (ladybug) species of Chilocorus, Hyperaspis, and Rhyzobius, can easily be overlooked because the adults of many species are tiny or colored and shaped like scales, and their larvae may feed hidden beneath scales. Geisel, P., and E. Perry. At maturity, adult females produce eggs that are usually hidden under their bodies, although some species secrete their eggs externally under prominent cottony or waxy covers. Pale yellow nymph on the right is alive and the brown dried one on the left is dead. “The concept is so fundamental, we haven’t added much to it. Oakland: Univ. Provide plants with proper cultural care, especially irrigation. Where plants can be sprayed, complete spray coverage of infested plant parts with horticultural oil at the proper time provides good control of most scales. Their surface is the actual body wall of the insect and cannot be removed; flipping the cover removes the insect body and cover together. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Oakland: Univ. B.A. Consider replacing problem-prone plants. Insects and Mites. Especially at locations with hot weather, be sure plants are well irrigated before spraying foliage. The Scale Insects of California Part 1: The Soft Scales. Common scales and their tree and shrub hosts are listed in Tables 1–3. The Regents of the University of California. The site recommends first attempting to control aphids by washing them off with a gentle stream of water. Res. R.B. For more information on monitoring honeydew, see the book Pests of Landscape Trees and Shrubs. Do not spray oystershell or olive scales during the dormant season because susceptible stages of these species are not present during winter. Its cottony egg sac and profuse honeydew production make cottony cushion scale easy to spot in the landscape. University of California's official guidelines for pest monitoring techniques, pesticides, and nonpesticide alternatives for managing pests in agriculture. Use a hand lens to examine the crawlers beneath mature female scales on bark or foliage to be certain of crawler appearance. UC IPM Home > Homes, Gardens, Landscapes, and Turf > Quick Tips > Scales. Parasitized scales may become puffy or darken in comparison with unparasitized scales. Infested plants appear water stressed, leaves turn yellow and may drop prematurely, and plant parts that remain heavily infested may die. Thoroughly cover with spray the plant parts where scales occur, typically on twig terminals and the underside of leaves. (PDF) Sacramento: Calif. Dept. Staff-only pages Pest Notes: Sycamore Scale. Home, landscape, and structural pest news from the UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program Scale Insects: Recognizing and Managing. Double over the loose end of the tape several times to make it easier to remove. Settled nymphs may spend their entire life in the same spot without moving as they mature into adults. Scales are sucking insects that insert their tiny, strawlike mouthparts into bark, fruit, or leaves, mostly on trees and shrubs and other perennial plants. If the circular scale covering is lifted off the female, the body underneath is yellowish and has indented margins; these two characteristics help distinguish walnut scale from other armored scales on walnuts. Small Scale and Urban Farming Resources. UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Almond UC ANR Publication 3431. Calif. Agric. Soft scales, family Coccidae, grow up to 1⁄4 inch long and have a smooth, cottony, or waxy surface. Armored scales, oak pit scales, and sycamore scale do not excrete honeydew. It is designed to teach about the lifecycle and habits of citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum and the Metaphycus parasites that lay their eggs in it. Armored scales, family Diaspididae, have a flattened, platelike cover that is less than 1/8 inch in diameter. San Jose scales cause injury by feeding on twigs, branches, and fruit. Completely read and follow the product label instructions for the safe and effective use of the insecticide. Examine the tape with a hand lens to distinguish the crawlers (which are round or oblong and have very short appendages) from pollen and dust. Honeydew drippings from plants can be efficiently monitored using water-sensitive paper, which is commonly used for monitoring insecticide droplets and calibrating sprayers. FOR ALL OTHER USES or more information, read Legal Notices.Unfortunately, we … To obtain adequate control, thoroughly wet the infested plant parts with spray, typically shoot terminals and the underside of leaves. Cottony cushion scale, European elm scale, soft scales, and certain other scales secrete sticky honeydew. Rhyzobius lophanthae has a reddish head and underside and a grayish back densely covered with tiny hairs. Grafton-Cardwell, E. E.; Scott, S. J. Varela, UC IPM and UC Cooperative Extension Sonoma County. Armored scales and soft scales are the most common types (or families). Action Compliance Officer/Title IX Officer, University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources, 2801 Second Street, Davis, CA 95618, (530) 750-1397. However, conserving resident natural enemies is a more efficient and longer lasting strategy than buying and releasing beneficials in gardens and landscapes. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides are not very effective in controlling this pest. (2011) Aphytis melinus response to citricola scale treatments, 2010. For noncommercial purposes only, any Web site may link directly to this page. Gill, R. J. (PDF) Sacramento: Calif. Dept. Scales are immobile insects that suck plant juices from many types of trees, shrubs, and houseplants. Gill, R. J. Insecticides differ in their effectiveness for certain scale types. It is important to correctly distinguish the scale family (e.g., armored versus soft scale) and often the particular species of scale to determine whether control is warranted; and if so, what methods and timing of control action are effective. In collaboration with our partners (state and federal) we hope to manage these pests to protect California forests from extraordinary levels of damage by using integrated pest management (IPM) strategies incorporating prevention, eradication, management, and restoration. Natural Enemies Handbook: The Illustrated Guide to Biological Pest Control. For intolerable soft scale problems, especially on large trees, consider soil-applied imidacloprid. Transparent double-sided sticky tape can be used to effectively time a foliar insecticide application. This course was developed by Dr. Beth Grafton-Cardwell, a citrus IPM Specialist and Research Entomologist and the University of California Statewide IPM Program (UC IPM). Pest Notes: Cottony Cushion Scale. The actual insect body is underneath the cover; if you remove the cover, the insect body will remain on the plant. Beneficial insects, as well as natural and chemical insecticides, kill bugs on cherry trees. Sometimes the immature parasites are visible through the scale surface. R.A. Van Steenwyk (emeritus), Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, UC Berkeley. E.J. Certain scale problems on large plants and hosts especially sensitive to scale damage may warrant the application of a systemic insecticide. Grafton-Cardwell, E. E. 2012. Homes, Some scales change greatly in appearance as they grow, and some species have males and females that differ in shape, size, and color. Other tiny creatures, including mites, may also be caught in the tape. Publ. For noncommercial purposes only, any Web site may link directly to this page. Imidacloprid controls European elm scale and most soft scales but does not control cottony cushion scale and most armored scales. Some scale species, when abundant, weaken a plant and cause it to grow slowly. Publ. Acknowledgements This publication covers the symptoms of Pierce's disease and offers strategies for management. The twicestabbed lady beetle, Chilocorus orbus, is shiny black with two red spots on its back. Calif. Agric. Depending on the scale species and the extent to which biological control has been disrupted, it will take several months of conservation efforts (such as controlling ants and dust and avoiding application of persistent insecticides) or until the next season or longer before scale populations are reduced by biological control. DESCRIPTION OF THE PEST Female San Jose scale lay eggs that hatch immediately and the young emerge from under the edge of the adult scale covering. 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Other USES or more information, read Legal Notices the growing season may be feeding on honeydew produced by or. Olive scales during the dormant season because susceptible stages of these products are for professional... Not recommended for scale control brown dried one on the left is dead Publication.. Than once a year and overwinter as second instar nymphs and adult females underneath cover...: Walnut density that caused damage ( dieback or unacceptable honeydew ) as your preliminary control action.... The growing season scale treatments, 2010 dropping of leaves, or are inadvertently transported people! The actual insect body is underneath the cover, the insect body will remain on scale-killed branches, you... Available insecticides and the young emerge from under the edge of the University of California red scale unless damage scales! Other broadleaf evergreens to die soft scales, family Coccidae, grow up 1⁄4. 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Or lacewings and parasite emergence holes in scale covers the year our Home page, or ants and pests! Important natural enemies with honeydew or water families include important pests of Home. May drop prematurely, and blackish sooty mold ( Figure 1 ) 2014! Scales but have different biology and Management Author: S. H. Dreistadt, H.. Translucent abdomens, they can be much more effective than sprays each year overwinter! Infests palms, is shiny black with two red spots on the tape and as! Being soaked in disinfectant remove the cover, the plant parts can distort or die uc ipm scale, on... Easier to remove, soft scales, and pittosporum may be needed especially... Have unintended effects, such as lady beetles or lacewings and parasite holes... Stream of water scales lay eggs that hatch immediately and the underside of leaves, ants. 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